BALTIMORE — MANY scientists believe that by transforming the earth’s natural landscapes, we are undermining the very life support systems that sustain us. Like bacteria in a petri dish, our exploding numbers are reaching the limits of a finite planet, with dire consequences. Disaster looms as humans exceed the earth’s natural carrying capacity. Clearly, this could not be sustainable.
This is nonsense. Even today, I hear some of my scientific colleagues repeat these and similar claims — often unchallenged. And once, I too believed them. Yet these claims demonstrate a profound misunderstanding of the ecology of human systems. The conditions that sustain humanity are not natural and never have been. Since prehistory, human populations have used technologies and engineered ecosystems to sustain populations well beyond the capabilities of unaltered “natural” ecosystems.
The evidence from archaeology is clear. Our predecessors in the genus Homo used social hunting strategies and tools of stone and fire to extract more sustenance from landscapes than would otherwise be possible. And, of course, Homo sapiens went much further, learning over generations, once their preferred big game became rare or extinct, to make use of a far broader spectrum of species. They did this by extracting more nutrients from these species by cooking and grinding them, by propagating the most useful species and by burning woodlands to enhance hunting and foraging success.
Even before the last ice age had ended, thousands of years before agriculture, hunter-gatherer societies were well established across the earth and depended increasingly on sophisticated technological strategies to sustain growing populations in landscapes long ago transformed by their ancestors.
The planet’s carrying capacity for prehistoric human hunter-gatherers was probably no more than 100 million. But without their Paleolithic technologies and ways of life, the number would be far less — perhaps a few tens of millions. The rise of agriculture enabled even greater population growth requiring ever more intensive land-use practices to gain more sustenance from the same old land. At their peak, those agricultural systems might have sustained as many as three billion people in poverty on near-vegetarian diets.
The world population is now estimated at 7.2 billion. But with current industrial technologies, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has estimated that the more than nine billion people expected by 2050 as the population nears its peak could be supported as long as necessary investments in infrastructure and conducive trade, anti-poverty and food security policies are in place. Who knows what will be possible with the technologies of the future? The important message from these rough numbers should be clear. There really is no such thing as a human carrying capacity. We are nothing at all like bacteria in a petri dish.Continue reading the main story
Intro of Population Explosion
Population Explosion defined as a significant number of people staying in the individual area. It is a huge problem in India. In fact, in all over the world, it is increasing, especially in the poorer countries it is developing.
During the 1951 Census, the Population increased by 361 billion. During the 2011 Census, the Population increased by 1.21 billion.
Population Explosion is a big issue in the developing country. No one people are following the right step to control the Population, even the government of India is not leading proper rules and regulation for control the Population Explosion. It causes many problems among people.
Some people are suffering from an issue which generates by Population Explosion. Firstly, on this issue people are unemployed, and illiteracy also creates in India. The industry growth is not implementing in India for development.
Due to the post- independent India, it was big problem and negativity of India, which affects the economy. In the present India, Population is growing day by day. There is no implementation for developing the country. National wealth is significant for the development in ever-expanding spheres.
Population Explosion refers the massive and sudden rapid rise of Population among the human being. It causes the poor result in census while Population increased.
- It is the main purpose, that increasing birth rate day by day in India.
- It is good in the country, where the infant mortality rate decreases in India.
- There is life expectancy has improved in India.
In India, there is limited employment and literacy among the people. Due to the Population Explosion, it is prominent in under-developed.
Causes of Population Explosion
In India, there is Population Explosion increasing day by day. Most of the people don’t have the knowledge about control the delivery. The birth rate is increasing due to the lack of awareness in people. There is the full range of gaping has increased in Population.
The birth rate increases, when an average number of women born to the child came down from about six in the fifties to 4.4.
In 1951-61, the average birth rate was 42 per thousand Populations.
In 1996, the average birth rate came down 28.1 per thousand Populations.
Decreases of infant mortality rate
Due to the age of science and technology, some people are getting the proper facility for improvement of good health and best medical care. Because of the science, there is an extensive use of preventive drugs, which can reduce the infant mortality rate.
During the past time, there was not any facility reduce the infant mortality, but that time science makes all possible for everything.
In 1995, the average infant mortality rate was 74 per thousand in India. In an Urban area, it was 49 per thousand, and in the rural area, it was 80 per thousand.
Growth of life expectancy
In India, there is the life expectancy will become weak, when the proper nutrition and good health do not improve by the human Population. Due to improved living condition, the better sanitation, better nutrition, and education in the Human Population improves the life expectancy. It is significant for the person.
The good quality of food creates the life expectancy for the human being and it well-nourished to the people while using of nutrition food. Population grows when they adequately nourished.
Due to lack of illiteracy among women is the biggest problem of family planning. The female education directly related to age at marriage, the general status of women, their fertility and infant mortality rate, and so forth.
In 1991, the male literacy rate was 64.13%, and female literacy rate was 39.29%.
In 1999, the male literacy rate was 73%, and female literacy rate was 49%.
In India, everyone should become literate either male or female. Education must develop the skill, personal liberal, broad-minded, open to new ideas, and rational.
Effect of Population Explosion
Population Explosion creates by many facts which are following as:
Due to the growing countries, the unemployment is also increasing day by day. It is the main reason to back the economy of countries. Millions of people are jobless in the India. They are not getting the job after finding everywhere.
After all that, they lose their confidence about searching the job. The unemployed people are living with a very dangerous condition of the economy. Without the job, they have ensured the living, left frustrated, and demoralize. They lose their faith in their life.
It happens in India as compared to other countries such as South Africa and Asia.
In India, there is the number of Population and also impressing day by day. It is more useful for the Population Explosion. There are over Population in India. Because of this condition of India, people are not getting comfortable and accommodate life. It also poses a threat to the environment.
Poverty is the primary reason of Population Explosion. Most of the people, who belong from the poverty line, they have not any knowledge about the overpopulation of country. They generate the high birth rate in India, which can cause and effect of Population Explosion.
Due to the poverty, there is massive growth of Population. On the other hand, the large number of Population almost increases by the poor people of the country.
Due to the result of 2011 census, the poverty level was 1.21 billion while in the forties the poverty line was 400 million.
In India, the illiteracy is the key reason of Population Explosion. The resource available fixed. In theory and practice, the total available resources are shared by the people using them. Some of the people have not any sources to provide the education to their children.
People get the low health status, when they have not adequate food and nutrition.
Pollution and Global Warming
Pollution and global warming are most effective for the Population Explosion. Much Population creates the pressure on the earth. There arise excessive demands for finished products leading to over-industrialization and over-utilization of resources.
Prevention of the Population Explosion
Awareness made by government
The government creates more awareness among our country. They cannot ignore or shelve the problem of Population Explosion. Our nation is mostly active dependent on the government of India, how they treat and solve the problem of India.
The government made this awareness, at the central and state to think about adopting an official program to educate opinion and reduce the birth rate so that the Population can fit in well with the evolving pattern of developing country.
The government also starts the program of family planning in 1952. The government is still trying to aware to people for family planning campaign. The small family is right for every citizen of people, and they have to be aware of it. Small families always become happy and healthy, and they can complete all needs of children. It is the best advantage of small family. It controls the Population. It is much beneficial for the country.
So everyone should have to follow it.
Population Explosion has caused more pressure on earth. We should save energy so that the entire Population can enjoy its benefit. We can control the global warming issues by curbing the use of fossil fuels. Food security is another area that needs attention. The agricultural output should increase with growing Population to make a sure steady supply of food to all. We should use potable water carefully. With larger Population, there is a need for harmony and peace among nations.