Adriani W, Spijker S, Deroche-Gamonet V, Laviola G, Le Moal M, Smit AB, Piazza PV. Evidence for enhanced neurobehavioral vulnerability to nicotine during peri-adolescence in rats. Journal of Neuroscience. 2003;23(11):4712–6. [PubMed: 12805310]
Alesci NL, Forster JL, Blaine T. Smoking visibility, perceived acceptability, and frequency in various locations among youth and adults. Preventive Medicine. 2003;36(3):272–81. [PubMed: 12634018]
Anderson G. Chronic Care: Making the Case for Ongoing Care. Princeton (NJ): Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; 2010. [accessed: November 30, 2011]. < http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/50968chronic.care.chartbook.pdf>.
Bonnie RJ, Stratton K, Wallace RB, editors. Ending the Tobacco Problem: A Blueprint for the Nation. Washington: National Academies Press; 2007.
Cochrane Collaboration. Home page. 2010. [accessed: November 30, 2010]. < http://www.cochrane.org/>.
Community Preventive Services Task Force. First Annual Report to Congress and to Agencies Related to the Work of the Task Force. Community Preventive Services Task Force. 2011. [accessed: January 9, 2012]. < http://www.thecommunityguide.org/library/ARC2011/congress-report-full.pdf>.
Dalton MA, Beach ML, Adachi-Mejia AM, Longacre MR, Matzkin AL, Sargent JD, Heatherton TF, Titus-Ernstoff L. Early exposure to movie smoking predicts established smoking by older teens and young adults. Pediatrics. 2009;123(4):e551–e558. [PMC free article: PMC2758519] [PubMed: 19336346]
Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years’ observations on male British doctors. BMJ (British Medical Journal) 2004;32:1519. [PMC free article: PMC437139] [PubMed: 15213107] [Cross Ref]
Fagerström K. The epidemiology of smoking: health consequences and benefits of cessation. Drugs. 2002;62(Suppl 2):1–9. [PubMed: 12109931]
Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, Public Law 111-31, 123 U.S. Statutes at Large 1776 (2009)
Grimshaw G, Stanton A. Tobacco cessation interventions for young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2006;(4):CD003289. [PubMed: 17054164] [Cross Ref]
Kessler DA. Nicotine addiction in young people. New England Journal of Medicine. 1995;333(3):186–9. [PubMed: 7791824]
Lovato C, Linn G, Stead LF, Best A. Impact of tobacco advertising and promotion on increasing adolescent smoking behaviours. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2003;(4):CD003439. [PubMed: 14583977] [Cross Ref]
Lovato C, Watts A, Stead LF. Impact of tobacco advertising and promotion on increasing adolescent smoking behaviours. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2011;(10):CD003439. [PubMed: 21975739] [Cross Ref]
Lynch BS, Bonnie RJ, editors. Growing Up Tobacco Free: Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youths. Washington: National Academies Press; 1994. [PubMed: 25144107]
National Association of Attorneys General. Master Settlement Agreement. 1998. [accessed: June 9, 2011]. < http://www.naag.org/back-pages/naag/tobacco/msa/msa-pdf/MSA%20with%20Sig%20Pages%20and%20Exhibits.pdf/file_view>.
National Cancer Institute. Changing Adolescent Smoking Prevalence. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute; 2001. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 14. NIH Publication. No. 02-5086.
National Cancer Institute. The Role of the Media in Promoting and Reducing Tobacco Use. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute; 2008. Tobacco Control Monograph No. 19. NIH Publication No. 07-6242.
National Research Council. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects. Washington: National Academy Press; 1986. [PubMed: 25032469]
Office of the Surgeon General Reports of the Surgeon General, U.S. Public Health Service. 2010. [accessed: November 30, 2010]. < http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/index.html>.
Perry CL, Eriksen M, Giovino G. Tobacco use: a pediatric epidemic [editorial] Tobacco Control. 1994;3(2):97–8.
Peto R, Lopez AD. Future worldwide health effects of current smoking patterns. In: Koop CE, Pearson CE, Schwarz MR, editors. Critical Issues in Global Health. San Francisco: Wiley (Jossey-Bass); 2001. pp. 154–61.
Reddy KS, Perry CL, Stigler MH, Arora M. Differences in tobacco use among young people in urban India by sex, socioeconomic status, age, and school grade: assessment of baseline survey data. Lancet. 2006;367(9510):589–94. [PubMed: 16488802]
Schochet TL, Kelley AE, Landry CF. Differential expression of arc mRNA and other plasticity-related genes induced by nicotine in adolescent rat forebrain. Neuroscience. 2005;135(1):285–97. [PMC free article: PMC1599838] [PubMed: 16084664]
Sowden AJ. Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1998;(4):CD001006. [PubMed: 10796581] [Cross Ref]
Sowden AJ, Stead LF. Community interventions for preventing smoking in young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2003;(1):CD001291. [PubMed: 12535406] [Cross Ref]
Stead LF, Lancaster T. Interventions for preventing tobacco sales to minors. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2005;(1):CD001497. [PubMed: 15674880] [Cross Ref]
Steinberg L. Risk taking in adolescence: what changes, and why? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2004;1021:51–8. [PubMed: 15251873]
Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Recommendations regarding interventions to reduce tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2001;20(2 Suppl):S10–S15. [PubMed: 11173214]
Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Tobacco. In: Zaza S, Briss PA, Harris KW, editors. The Guide to Preventive Services: What Works to Promote Health? New York: Oxford University Press; 2005. pp. 3–79. < http://www.thecommunityguide.org/tobacco/Tobacco.pdf>.
Thomas RE, Baker PRA, Lorenzetti D. Family-based programmes for preventing smoking by children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2007;(1):CD004493. [PubMed: 17253511] [Cross Ref]
Thomas RE, Perera R. School-based programmes for preventing smoking. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2006;(3):CD001293. [PubMed: 16855966] [Cross Ref]
US Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA): US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 1994.
US Department of Health and Human Services. Tobacco Use Among US Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups—African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 1998.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health. 2nd ed. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.
US Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing Tobacco Use: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2000.
US Department of Health and Human Services. Women and Smoking A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General; 2001.
US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2004.
US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2006.
US Department of Health and Human Services. How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease—The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Tobacco-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2010. [PubMed: 21452462]
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Healthy People 2020. 2011. [accessed: November 1, 2011]. < http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/default.aspx>.
US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. Washington: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control; 1964. PHS Publication No. 1103.
Looking for research paper writing help? Are you in High School, College, Masters, Bachelors or Ph.D All you need is to ask for research, term paper, thesis help written by a specialist in your academic field. When you buy a customized essay from PremiumPapers.net. We offer you an original, 0%- plagiarized and unique research paper written by a dedicated writer who is PhD or Masters qualified. PremiumPapers.net is an experienced service with over 8 years experience having delivered over 79,500 essays over the years.
Get Your Essay Done by a Specialist
NB: Click Our Prices for more. Our starting prices are as shown below!
We have over 10 years in the essay, term paper, research writing over the continents: US, UK, CAD, UAE, Russia, Netherlands, South Africa, Europe, Asia etc.
We have a pool of 1112 seasoned & qualified veteran academic research writers in over 77+ fields.
At PremiumPapers.net revision is free if you are not satisfied, Our organization has a money back policy to ensure all our clients are satisfied and keep coming back
Applying for an order is easy on our site, visit our order page and place all your order information if you have attachments upload them and we will write from scratch.
For every order placed at PremiumPapers.net, you will receive a plagiarism, grammar check report
PremiumPapers.net is affordable, but our quality it premium since we have a huge pool of clients
Tobacco smoking is one of the practices in the society that has been lauded by many while being opposed by equally as many proponents. The legality of the practice makes it more acceptable. The foundation of the major tobacco producers coupled with ambitious marketing procedures has led to the massive acceptance of the practice (Egendorf, 47-82). However, many disadvantages are often unexposed. Most of the tobacco users that are in their old age started using it from a tender age. Trying to inform this part of the demographic on the dangers of their practice leads to the immediate dismissal. However, current studies have led to the massive appreciation of the dangers of tobacco usage. This speech will enlighten the society on the currency and reality of the dangers.
Ingredients that are found in the tobacco smoke are active and they start their effect on the body the moment that they enter the system. They often offset dramatic and often fatal changes on the normal functionality of the body such that there is too much exposure of the people that are involved in their use. The smoke in itself has more than 4000 chemicals that have the potential of damaging the normal functioning of the body. Some of the chemicals in the tobacco smoke include, tar, carbon monoxide, cyanide, ammonia, metals and radioactive components. The chemicals are potent in that they have the ability to effect the rapid changes in the body functioning.
Tobacco smoking leads to different effects on the body. Some of the effects of the vice are immediate while other take the long-term period for them to set in. the immediate effects are not fatal in their sleeve. However, they are part of the major buildup of negative effects on the consumer of tobacco in any form.
Immediately after the smoker, take the first puff, the smoke leads to the contraction of the lung airways. This leads to two effects that may not be noted by the user. On one hand, the lung capacity is not attained (Egendorf, 47-82). Therefore, the body is unable to attain the required level of oxygen. This means that the body will have to prioritize the distribution of oxygen. Some of the parts of the body that are not core for the survival of the human body often end up being supplied with less than optimal oxygen.
Smoking of tobacco also leads to the intake of small doses of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide leads to the reduction of the ability of the blood to transport oxygen in the optimal manner (Merino, 35-74). Consequently, the capacity of the blood to carry oxygen is reduced a puff at a time. Carbon monoxide poisoning may not be witnessed at this point. However, the gradual deprivation of oxygen to the vital organs leads to the loss of ability of the affected organs to function in the most optimal manner.
Another immediate effect of smoking is the high heart rate. Tobacco has active ingredients that cause the increase in the heart rate and consequent rise in the blood pressure. Some of the hearts have an inherent predication to heart failure (Egendorf, 47-82). Therefore, a slight change in the heart rate may trigger off the heart condition leading to heart attacks. The heart rate may become permanent more so for the people that has the smoking habit. Therefore, even the person is not predicated to heart conditions may find himself developing them. In case of pregnancy, tobacco smoking leads to the transmission of the chemicals continued in the smoke to the child through the placenta (Merino, 35-74). This aspect may lead to the irregular fetus development leading to still births and underweight babies.
In case of long-term effects, the habit leads to the development of lung cancer. According to research into the history of the lung cancer patients, the history of tobacco smoking leads to the development of the condition as well as the development of rapid advancement. Lung cancer may also move to the mouth or throat. Since the cancer affects one of the most vital organs, it is difficult to treat and often fatal.
Tobacco smoking also leads to emphysema, which is a fatal lung condition. The condition entails the clogging of the lungs. The smokers suffering from this condition indicate its prevalence through the continued presence of a wheezing sound in their breathing. The wheezing sound is indicative of the narrowing of the air passages and clogging due to the continued exposure to soot. In order to understand the role of tobacco smoking in the development of the condition, it is important to compare the prevalence of the condition among the nonsmokers. The condition is seldom witnessed in the nonsmokers. Continued smoking canals lead to the development of laryngeal and oral cancers.
Tobacco smoking leads to the development of more complications to the members of the family that stay with the smokers (Swisher, 47-25). Tobacco smoking leads to the emission of the secondary smoke, in as much as the secondary smoke has a reduced amount of tar; the other chemicals are also present. Consequently, the majority of the complications that affect the smokers are likely to affect the inhalers of secondary smoke.
Egendorf, Laura K. Smoking. Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Print.
Merino, Noël. Smoking. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Greenhaven Press, 2011. Print.
Swisher, Karin. Smoking. San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press, 1995. Print.
Smoking introduces different chemicals in the body, with each affecting health of an individual differently. Nicotine, which is one of the components of cigarette smoke, acts as a brain stimulant and causes a feeling of relief. However, the impact is only short-lived. Also, nicotine is addictive. Regular smoking causes the emergence of a dependency syndrome. Skipping smoking causes headaches and boredom to the individual due to nicotine addiction. Similarly, nicotine increases the heart rate of a person. Though this is usually the sought-after feeling, it can lead to the development of high blood pressure.
Tar, which is another chief component in cigarette smoke, has a profound effect on the lungs and oxygen transport system. Tar binds to the air sacs in the lungs reducing the volume available for oxygen exchange. The amount of oxygen transported in the blood reduces causing inadequate oxygen supply to other body organs. As a consequence, an individual suffers fatigue. Also, it binds the cilia in the lungs, preventing them from filtering dust particles from breathed air. As a consequence, unwanted particles enter the lungs leading to infections of the respiratory tract. Cigarette smoke also delivers carbon monoxide to the body. The gas binds to red blood cells reducing the volume of oxygen transported.
Cigarettes also contain cadmium and arsenic. These components are heavy metals and predispose the smoker towards a development of some strains of cancer. Apart from the above-mentioned chemicals, cigarettes also contain other chemicals such as ammonia and benzene, which are also poisonous. Smoking is, therefore, unethical since it reduces the capacity of a person’s health system to perform optimally. Smokers consume billions of dollars every year in healthcare due to a development of pulmonary disorders. Such money is obtained from tax cuts from the entire population. This presents baggage to other citizens and creates a sense of being used.
In areas where people smoke freely, it is common to find cigarette stubs strewn all over. This reduces the aesthetic value of the surrounding environment. When such occurs in a recreational facility, you can find small children sucking at the stubs. Such behavior is unethical since it reduces the appeal of the environment. It may also encourage a transfer of diseases to children who do that oblivious of the dangers. Also, the stubs may be a source of contamination to the soil. They contain the high concentration of harmful chemicals which may change soil composition due to rain water seepage. The smoke released by smokers also reduces the quality of air around the place. This causes irritation to people who do not smoke.
Since smoking is habitual, it is common for smoking workers to take repeated short breaks. Most of these breaks occur besides the designated breaks during which workers can relax and smoke. This causes a worker to be absent from the workstation. It is poor work ethics to be absent from the station of work during working hours. Having no valid reason, and, in this case, absence due to an unhealthy habit may reduce reliance on such a worker. It may also lead to loss of job to the worker due to redundancy (Stern 81).
Though it may not lead to loss of job, it causes a worker to perform poorly in situations where production is calculated as units per unit time. Constant breaks also cause an employer to feel they pay for underserved hours. It also causes a feeling of employees stealing the employers’ time.
Addiction to smoking leads to dependency. When dependency occurs, a person may not think rationally without smoking. Smoking triggers the brain to release dopamine that activates the reward system of the body. Smokers may be unable to participate in activities of leisure or adventure. This causes them to lead a bored life. Lack of the usual dose of excitement obtained from smoking may cause the smoker to develop poor temperament. Smokers become irritable and unable to relate well to people around them (Gosselin 93). Upon setting in of dependency, a smoker usually requires more of the drugs to achieve the same feeling they used to get at the start of the habit. Dependency, therefore, causes additional emotional and financial burden.
Smoking alters some genetic markers in the parents that can then be transferred to their children. Development of such genes increases chances of the children developing the habit of smoking. Smoking parents make the internal home environment unbearable for their children. The children may develop cravings as a result of secondary smoking (Laffal 82). Secondary smoking involves taking in of oxidized smoke components, which are more damaging than fresh smoke. This may cause children to start developing respiratory conditions.
Moodiness caused by skipping on the habit may cause parents to be irritable and make unreasonable demands upon the children. Women who smoke during pregnancy may cause their unborn children to develop birth defects. Also, it may cause the reduction in levels of concentration and low intelligent quotients in the children. Similarly, smoking among parents may cause impotence. This makes it a bad option for couples who desire to get children. Development of impotence depends on their genetic susceptibility. Smoking also accelerates the death of brain cells amongst elderly people (Laffal 44). Smoking may accelerate the emergence of conditions such as memory lapses to the parents. This may not be good if they have a young family. It may also be a source of anxiety to the children where illegal drugs are involved. Smoking parents could also deprioritize some family needs in favor of their habits. This leads to the breakdown of family values and leads to feelings of bitterness amongst family members.
Gosselin, Kim, and Thom Buttner. Smoking Stinks!!Valley Park, MO: JayJo Books, 1998. Print.
Stern, Lesley. The Smoking Book. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999. Print.
Laffal, LaSalle, Horace Kornegay, John K. Fairbank, Donald Klein, Jimmy Carter, and Hsaio-p'ing Teng. Smoking Is Bad for Your Health: Pro. New York: Encyclopedia Americana/CBS News Audio Resource Library, 1979. Sound recording.